A STUDY OF PHYSICAL AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HEAVY METAL ACCUMULATION OF JUNCUS RIGIDUS DESFONTAINES, 1798 (FAMILY, JUNCACEAE) IN BASRAH PROVINCE, SOUTHEREN OF IRAQ

  • Shatha Mohammed Hamza College of Science, Department of Biology, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq
  • Sahar A. A. Malik Al-Saadi College of Science, Department of Biology, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq
  • Dunya A. Hussain Al-Abbawy College of Science, Department of Ecology, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq
Keywords: Accumulation, Anatomy, Culm, Heavy metals, Juncus rigidus, Root

Abstract

This study was carried out to determine the heavy metal accumulation of Juncus rigidus Desfontaines, 1798 from three different regions of the Basrah Province in Southern of Iraq. Specifically, the concentrations of lead, nickel, and cadmium were determined in the roots, culms and leaves of the plant. The results indicated that the highest accumulation of the heavy metal was recorded in lead (Pb) 12.50± 3.58 mg kg-1and then in nickel (< 0.30). The lowest value was recorded for cadmium (< 0.05). As well, lead concentrations in J. rigidus varied in different locations and parts of the plant from undetectable in control to 12.66, 19.33, and 9.80 mg kg-1 in leaves, culm, and roots respectively from Station 2, and 10.76, 12.66, and 9.50 mg kg-1 in Station 3. The values of translocation factor (TF), bioconcentration factor (BCF), and Biological Accumulation Coefficient (BAC) were greater than>1 used to the ability of J. rigidus for both phytoextraction and phytostabilization.

   The anatomical analysis showed that heavy metal accumulation in plant tissues led to a reduction in root and culm thickness; in polluted area it has been found that cortex and intercellular spaces in aerenchyma layers were deceased in size, whereas high pollution levels were observed in vascular bundles, which were smaller, and had increased sclerenchyma, as well as appeared more black or dark color compared to the specimens grown in the control area

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Akesh, A. A. 2017. Analytical study for heavy metals pollution in surface water and sediments for selected rivers of Basrah governorate. Kufa Journal of Engineering, 8(2): 105-118.

Ali, H., Khan, E. and Sajad, M. A. 2013. Phytoremediation of heavy metals concepts and applications. Chemosphere, 91:869–881.

Al-Obaidy, A. H., Al-Janabi, Z. Z. and Al-Mashhady, A. M. 2016. Distribution of some heavy metals in sediments and water in Tigris River. Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, 4(3):140–146.

Al-Saadi, S. A. M., Al-Asaadi, W. M. and Al-Waheeb, A. N. 2013. The effect of some heavy metal’s accumulation on physiological and anatomical characteristic of some Potamogeton L. plant. Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 4 (1):100–108.

Alves, E. S., Giusti, P. M., Domingos, M., Saldiva, P. H. N., Guimara, E. T. and Lobo, D. J. A. 2001. Anatomic studies on Tradescantia hibrid clone 4430 leaves: changes caused by urban air pollution. Brazilian Journal of Botany, 24(4):561–566.

Anderson, C. J. and Hess, T. A. 2012. The effects of oil exposure and weathering on black-needle rush (Juncus roemerianus) marshes along the Gulf of Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64:2749–55.

Bini, C., Wahsha, M., Fontana, S. and Maleci, L. 2012. Effects of heavy metals on morphological characteristics of Taraxacum officinale Web growing on mine soils in NE Italy. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 123:101–108.

Binning, K. and Baird, D. 2001. Survey of heavy metals in the sediments of the Swartkops River Estuary, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Water, 27: 461-466.

Bouldin, J. L., Farris, J. L., Moore, M. T., Smith, J. R and Cooper, C. M. 2006. Hydroponic uptake of atrazine and Lambda- cyhalothrin in Juncus effuses and Ludwigia peploides. Chemosphere, 65: 1049-1057.

Brandao, M. C., Martins, F. M., Accioly, A. M., Santos, N. M., Roma M. V. and Azevedo, A. D. 2018. Phytoremediation potential and morphological changes of plants growing in the vicinity of lead smelter plant. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 15:361–372.

Cho-Ruk, K., Kurukote, J., Supprung, P. and Vetayasuporn, S. 2006. Perennial plants in the phytoremediation of lead contaminated soils. Biotechnology, 5(1): 1–4.

Cui, S., Zhou, Q. and Chao. L. 2007. Potential hyper-accumulation of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in endurant plants distributed in an old smeltery, northeast China. Environmental Geology, 51: 1043-1048.

Deng, H., Ye, Z. H. and Wong, M. H. 2004. Accumulation of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal contaminated sites in China. Environmental Pollution, 132: 29–40.

Dimitroula, H., Syranidou, E., Manousaki, E., Nikolaidis, N. P., Karatzas, G. P. and Kalogerakis, N. 2014. Mitigation measures for chromium-VI contaminated groundwater – The role of endophytic bacteria in rhizofiltration. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 281: 114-120.

Doncheva, S., Moustakas, M., Ananieva, K., Chavdarova, M., Gesheva, E., Vassilevska, R. and Mateev, P. 2013. Plant response to lead in the presence or absence EDTA in two sunflower genotypes (cultivated H. annuus cv. 1114 and interspecific line H. annuus x H. argophyllus). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20 (2): 823–833.

Ederli, L., Reale, L., Ferranti, F., Pasqualini, S. 2004. Responses induced by high concentration of cadmium in Phragmites australis roots. Physiologia Plantarum, 121: 66-74.

El-Shamy, A. I., Abdel-Razek, A. F. and Nassar, M. I. 2015. Phytochemical review of Juncus L. genus (Fam. Juncaceae). Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 8 (5):614-623.

Esau, K. 1977. Anatomy of seed plants, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 550.

Ghosh, M. and Singh, S. P. 2005. A review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and utilization of its byproducts, Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 3(1): 1-18.

Gomes, M. P., Marques, T. C., Nogueira, M. O., Castro, E. M. and Soares, A. M. 2011. Ecophysiological and anatomical changes due to uptake and accumulation of heavy metal in Brachiaria decumbens. Scientia Agricola, 68:566-573.

Grube, R. H., Wiessner, A., Kuschk, P., Kaestner, M. and Appenroth, K. J. 2008. Physiological responses of Juncus effusus (Rush) to chromium and relevance for wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 10: 79–90.

Gupta, K., Gaumat, S. and Mishra, K. 2011. Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India. Journal of Environmental Biology, 32(5):591-597.

Han, Y., Zhang, L., Yang, Y., Yuan, H., Zhao, J., Gu, J. and Huang, S. 2016. Pb uptake and toxicity to Iris halophila tested on Pb mine tailing materials. Environmental Pollution, 214: 510–516.

Hasanuzzaman, M., Nahar, K., Alam, M., Bhowmik, P. C., Hossain, M., Rahman, M., Prasad, M. N., Ozturk, M. and Fujita, M. 2014. Potential use of Halophytes to Remediate Saline Soils. BioMed Research International, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/589341

Huang, H., Li, T., Tian, S., Gupta, D.K., Zhang, X. and Yang, X. E. 2008. Role of EDTA in alleviating lead toxicity in accumulator species of Sedum alfredii H. Bioresource Technology, 99 (14): 6088–6096.

Johansan, D. A. 1968. Plant Microtechnique, McGraw Hill, New York, 487 pp.

Kabata-Pendias, A. 2011. Trace elements in soils and plants. Chemical Rubber Company Press, Boca Raton, 201-213.

Kabata-Pendias, A. and Pendias, H. 1992. Trace elements in soils and plants. 2nd Edition, CRC Press. Boca Raton, 365 pp.

Khwedim, K. H., Al- Anssari, H. R. and Al- Bassam, K.S. 2009. Study of distribution of some heavy metals in the soil of Basra city south of Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Science, 50(4): 533-543.

La´zaro, D. J., Kiddb, P. S. and Martý´neza, C. M. 2006. A phytogeochemical study of the Tra´s-os Montes region (NE Portugal): Possible species for plant-based soil remediation technologies. Science of the Total Environment, 354: 265- 277.

Lasat, M. M. 2000. Phytoextraction of metals from contaminated soil: a review of plant/soil/metal interaction and assessment of pertinent agronomic issues. Journal of Hazardous Substance Research, 2: 1-25.

Li, M. S., Luo, Y. P. and Su. Z. Y. 2007. Heavy metal concentrations in soils and plant accumulation in a restored manganese mine land in Guangxi, South China. Environmental Pollution, 147: 168-175.

Liu, D., Li, T.Q., Jin, X. -F., Yang, X. E., Islam, E. and Mahmood, Q. 2008. Lead induced changes in the growth and antioxidant metabolism of the lead accumulating and non-accumulating ecotypes of Sedum alfredii. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 50: 129–140.

MacFarlane, G. R. and Burchett, M. D. 2000. Cellular distribuition of copper, lead and zinc in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. Aquatic Botany, 68: 45-59.

Mateos-Naranjoa, E., Castellanos, E.M. and Perez-Martinca, A. 2014. Zinc tolerance and accumulation in the halophytic species Juncus acutus. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 100: 114– 121.

McGrath, S. P. and Zhao, F. 2003. Phytoextraction of metals and metalloids from contaminated soils. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 14: 277-282.

Metcalfe, C. R. and Chalk, L. 1950. Anatomy of the Monocotyledons, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 470pp.

Michel, J. and Rutherford, N. 2014. Impacts, recovery rates, and treatment options for spilled oil in marshes. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 82:19–25.

Miretzky, P., Saralegui, A. and Cirelli, A. F. 2004. Aquatic macrophytes potential for the simultaneous removal of heavy metals (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Chemosphere, 57: 997-1005.

Mnpfs, C. and Basto, M. C. P. 2011. Vasconcelos MTSD. Suitability of different salt marsh plants for petroleum hydrocarbons remediation. Chemosphere, 84:1052–1057.

Najeeb, U., Ahmad, W., Zia, M. H., Zaffar, M. and Zhou, W. 2017. Enhancing the lead phytostabilization in wetland plant Juncus effusus L. through somaclonal manipulation and EDTA enrichment. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10: 3310-3317.

Najeeb, U., Jilani, G., Ali, S., Sarwar, M., Xu, L. and Zhou, W. 2011. Insights into cadmium induced physiological and ultra-structural disorders in Juncus effuses L. and its remediation through exogenous citric acid. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186: 565–574. Osman, F., Zahran, M. A. and Fayed, S. 1975. Potentialities of the seeds of flora of Egypt for oil production. Bulletin of the Faculty of Science. Cairo University, 3: 85-95.

Paz-Alberto, A. M. and Sigua, G. C. 2013. Phytoremediation: A green technology to remove environmental pollutants. American Journal of Climate Change, 2: 71-86.

Pourrut, B., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., Winterton, P. and Pinelli, E., 2011. Lead uptake, toxicity, and detoxification in plants. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 213: 113–136.

Seregin, I. V. and Ivanov, V. B. 2001. Physiological aspects of cadmium and lead toxic effects on higher plants. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 48: 523–544.

Snogerup, S. 1978. Notes on Juncus for Flora Europaea. Botaniska Notiser, 131 (2): 185-187.

Sridhar, B. B. M., Han, F. X., Diehl, V. S., Monts, D. L. and Su, Y. 2007. Effects of Zn and Cd accumulation on structural and physiological characteristics of barley plants. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 19(1):15–22.

Srighar, B. B. M., Diehl, S. V., Han, F. X., Monts, D. L. and Su, Y. 2005. Anatomical changes due to uptake and accumulation of Zn and Cd in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Environmental and Experimental Botany, 54: 131–141.

Susarla, S., Medina, V. F. and McCutcheon, S. C. 2002. Phytoremediation: an ecological solution to organic chemical contamination. Ecological Engineering, 18(5): 647–658.

Tangahu, B. V., Abdullah, S. R. S., Basri, H., Idris, M., Anuar, N. and Mukhlisin, M. 2011. A review on heavy metals (As, Pb, and Hg) uptake by plants through phytoremediation. International Journal of Chemical Engineering, 21:1–31.

Townsend, C.C. and Guest,E. 1985. Flora of Iraq. V.8.Monocotyledons. Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, Baghdad, 440pp.

Vollenweider, P., Cosio, C., Günthardt-Goerg, M. and Keller, C. 2006. Localization and effects of cadmium in leaves of a cadmium-tolerant willow (Salix viminalis L.). II. microlocalization and cellular effects of cadmium. Environmental of Experimental Botany, 58: 25-40.

Weis, J. S. and Weis, P. 2004. Metal uptake, transport and release by wetland plants: implications for phytoremediation and restoration. Environment International, 30: 685–700.

Weryszko-Chmielewska, E. and Chwil, M. 2005. Lead-Induced Histological and Ultrastructural Changes in the Leaves of Soybean Glycine max (L.) Merr. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 51(2):203–212.

Wójcik, M., Vangronsveld. J., D´Haen, J. and Tukiendorf, A. 2005. Cadmium tolerance in Thlaspi caerulescens. Environmental of Experimental Botany, 53: 163-171.

Yanqun, Z., Yuan, L., Schvartz, C., Langlade, L. and Fan, L. 2004. Accumulation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in plants and hyperaccumulator choice in landing lead–zinc mine area. China. Environment Internatinal, 30: 567–576.

Yoon, J., Cao, X., Zhou, Q. and Ma, L. Q. 2006. Accumulation of Pb, Cu, and Zn in native plants growing on a contaminated Florida site. Science of the Total Environment, 368:456–464.

Zahran, M. A. and El-Habib, A. M. 1979. A phytochemical investigation of Juncus species. Bulletin faculty of science, Mansoura University, 5: 1-11.

Zhang, Z., Rengel, Z. and Meney, K. 2010. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) differentially influence growth of various emergent wetland species. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 182: 689–95.

Published
2020-06-24
Section
Articles