• Shatha Mohammed Hamza College of Science, Department of Biology, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq
  • Sahar A. A. Malik Al-Saadi College of Science, Department of Biology, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq
  • Dunya A. Hussain Al-Abbawy College of Science, Department of Ecology, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq
Keywords: Accumulation, Anatomy, Culm, Heavy metals, Juncus rigidus, Root


This study was carried out to determine the heavy metal accumulation of Juncus rigidus Desfontaines, 1798 from three different regions of the Basrah Province in Southern of Iraq. Specifically, the concentrations of lead, nickel, and cadmium were determined in the roots, culms and leaves of the plant. The results indicated that the highest accumulation of the heavy metal was recorded in lead (Pb) 12.50± 3.58 mg kg-1and then in nickel (< 0.30). The lowest value was recorded for cadmium (< 0.05). As well, lead concentrations in J. rigidus varied in different locations and parts of the plant from undetectable in control to 12.66, 19.33, and 9.80 mg kg-1 in leaves, culm, and roots respectively from Station 2, and 10.76, 12.66, and 9.50 mg kg-1 in Station 3. The values of translocation factor (TF), bioconcentration factor (BCF), and Biological Accumulation Coefficient (BAC) were greater than>1 used to the ability of J. rigidus for both phytoextraction and phytostabilization.

   The anatomical analysis showed that heavy metal accumulation in plant tissues led to a reduction in root and culm thickness; in polluted area it has been found that cortex and intercellular spaces in aerenchyma layers were deceased in size, whereas high pollution levels were observed in vascular bundles, which were smaller, and had increased sclerenchyma, as well as appeared more black or dark color compared to the specimens grown in the control area


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