IMPACT OF LINEAR INFRASTRUCTURE INTRUSIONS ON AVIFAUNA: A REVIEW
Keywords:Avifauna, Collision, Impact, Linear infrastructures, Mitigation.
This review examines the reported impacts of three major linear infrastructure developments, namely railways, roads and power lines on avifauna. These infrastructures are proliferating worldwide posing serious threats to wildlife including avifauna. The major impacts involved with linear infrastructures are habitat degradation, fragmentation, direct mortality by collision and electrocution. The factors affecting collision mortality can be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The intrinsic factors include species morphology and species behavior whereas the extrinsic factors are the external factors such as weather, landscape features and the technical aspects of the infrastructure. Power lines affect a large number of birds, killing more than one billion birds globally each year. Studies suggest the implementation of anti-collision devices such as wire markers; flight diverters and physical barriers like trees, diversion poles or noise barriers are effective mitigation measures to reduce bird mortality due to the linear infrastructures. Therefore, understanding the overall impact of linear infrastructures is crucial for effectively managing their impacts on avifauna and helping make future developments less destructive and more sustainable.